Allantools has a dependence on scipy because it uses scipy.stats.chi2.ppf() (inverse of the chi-squared cumulative distribution function) in the code for confidence intervals.

When testing scipy takes quite a long time to install and the whole package seems a bit overkill for just this one function.

So I tried implementing it using just numpy. It sort of works, but not for corner cases where p is very close to 1.0 or k is a big number. I get for example:

    top = pow(x, s)*math.exp(-x)*pow(x,k)
OverflowError: (34, 'Numerical result out of range')

Maybe there's something trick when numerically evaluating lower_gamma() using the series expansion that I am missing...

import scipy.stats
import math
import numpy
 
def bisection(function, k, p, a, b, tol):
	# http://code.activestate.com/recipes/578417-bisection-method-in-python/
	assert (function(a,k)-p)*(function(b,k)-p) < 0 # a, b must bracket root
	c = (a+b)/2.0
	while (b-a)/2.0 > tol:
		if (function(c, k)-p) == 0:
			return c
		elif (function(a,k)-p)*(function(c,k)-p) < 0:
			b = c
		else :
			a = c
		c = (a+b)/2.0
	return c
 
def lower_gamma(s,x):
	# lower incomplete gamma function
	# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incomplete_gamma_function#Evaluation_formulae
	g  = 0
	last_g = 1.0
	done = False
	tol = 1.0e-6
	k=0
	while not done:
		top = pow(x, s)*math.exp(-x)*pow(x,k)
		bot = numpy.prod( [float(s+j) for j in range(k+1) ] )
		dg = float(top)/float(bot)
		if dg == float("Inf"):
			break
		g += dg
		k += 1
		if k>100: # get at least 100 terms in the sum
			if g==0:
				break
			delta = abs(dg/g)
			if delta == float("Inf"):
				break
			if delta < tol:
				done = True
		last_g = g
	return g
 
def chi2_cdf(x, k):
	# chi-squared cumulative density function
	# cdf(x; k) = lower_gamma(k/2, x/2) / gamma(k/2)
	return lower_gamma(k/2.0, x/2.0) / math.gamma(k/2.0)
 
def chi2_ppf(p, k):
	# chi-squared Percent point function (inverse of cdf percentiles).
	# look for x such that
	# p = chi2_cdf( x=chi2_ppf(p, k), k)
	tol = 1e-8
	lolim = 0
	hilim = k
	while (chi2_cdf(lolim,k)-p)*(chi2_cdf(hilim,k)-p) > 0: 
		hilim *= 1.5
	return bisection( chi2_cdf, k, p, lolim, hilim, tol)
 
print "scipy cdf: ",scipy.stats.chi2.cdf(55, 33)	
print "own   cdf: ",chi2_cdf(55, 33)
 
 
print "scipy ppf ", scipy.stats.chi2.ppf(0.4, 33)
print "  own ppf ", chi2_ppf(0.4, 33)
 
# test that we really found the inverse
print scipy.stats.chi2.cdf(scipy.stats.chi2.ppf(0.4, 33), 33)
print chi2_cdf( chi2_ppf(0.4, 33), 33 )
 
# try to check the scipy function against our own function
# for some random input of (p, k)
for n in range(100):
	k = numpy.random.randint(20, 200)
	p = numpy.random.random()
	print k, p,
	a=scipy.stats.chi2.ppf(p, k)
	b=chi2_ppf(p, k)
	ok = numpy.isclose(a, b)
	if ok:
		print  ok
	else:
		print  ok, a, b
	assert ok