NTP failure detection

Update: Here's how the graph looks like when NTP traffic is enabled again:
ntp

A computer that doesn't receive NTP traffic for a while will have its system time drift quite a lot.

In the absence of NTP (UDP port 123) traffic, we can try to roughly ask for the current time over HTTP using wget from google with this shell script:

#!/bin/sh
/usr/bin/wget --no-cache -S -O /dev/null google.com 2>&1 | \
    /bin/sed -n -e '/ *Date: */ {' -e s///p -e q -e '}'

This outputs a string such as "Sat, 23 Nov 2013 09:14:45 GMT"

Now we can put together a python script that calls this shell script, converts the text-format time-stamp into UTC seconds, and compares against the system time. For plotting we then store the time-error in an RRDTool database. This script is called once per minute using cron.

import subprocess 
import time
import datetime
import rrdtool
import syslog
 
args = ['googletime.sh']
datetimestring = subprocess.check_output(args)
syslog.syslog( "googletime {0}".format(datetimestring))
 
# input: Sat, 23 Nov 2013 09:18:02 GMT
# output: 1385191082.0  (seconds since 1.1.1970)
timestamp = time.mktime( time.strptime(datetimestring, '%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT\n'))
 
# system time, e.g.: 1385191082.0
stime = time.mktime( time.gmtime() )
 
# should be zero, if all is well
terror = stime-timestamp
 
# store the measured error in a database
datastring = 'N:{0}'.format(str(terror)) # 'N:1234'
syslog.syslog( "rrd update: {0}".format(datastring) )
ret = rrdtool.updatev( "time_error.rrd" ,datastring)
syslog.syslog( "rrd updatev: {0}".format(ret) )

Once we have all the values in our time_error.rrd database we can plot them with rrdtool graph. This is what I get:
system_vs_google_time
There is about -4 seconds of drift during 24 hours, or 46 us/s (46 ppm). If the drift is steady we can guess that the computer was on time 14/4 = ~4 days ago.

The script for creating the rrdtool database is this:

import rrdtool
import time
 
# DS:ds-name:GAUGE | COUNTER | DERIVE | ABSOLUTE:heartbeat:min:max
data_sources=[ 'DS:TERROR:GAUGE:70:U:U']
# RRA:AVERAGE | MIN | MAX | LAST:xff:steps:rows
 
utcsecs = int( time.time() )
pts_day= 24*60
primary = 'RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:{0}'.format(pts_day) # 2016 points
rrdtool.create( 'time_error.rrd',           # filename
                 '--start', str(utcsecs),   # when to start
                 '--step', '60',            # step between datapoints
                 data_sources,
                 primary)

And the graph is created by this script. I am using the simple python-rrdtool python bindings - the object-oriented python-pyrrd may have neater syntax and be more pythonic.

import rrdtool
import time
 
graphname = '/var/www/test.png'
day = 24*3600
span = 1*day
starttime = int(time.time()-span)
endtime = int( time.time() + 0.1*span)
updatestamp = time.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S UTC", time.gmtime(time.time()))
graphtitle = '192.168.1.55 System time - google.com time upated: '+updatestamp
rrdtool.graph(  graphname,
               '--start', str(starttime),
               '--end',str(endtime),
               '--title',graphtitle,
               '--width',str(1024),
               '--height',str(600),
               '--full-size-mode',
               '--upper-limit',str(20),
               '--lower-limit',str(-20),
               '--vertical-label','Error (s)', 
               '--right-axis', '1:0',
               'DEF:terror=time_error.rrd:TERROR:AVERAGE',
               'LINE2:terror#FF0000')

4 thoughts on “NTP failure detection”

  1. Hi Anders. The issue of determining whether ntp has lost synch piqued my interest. I explored the SNTP protocol, wrote a Python program that can query the NTP server to get its own estimate of its synch quality (among other information), and blogged about it here: http://emergent.unpythonic.net/01385230755

    The information my program provides is more of a complement to your method, not a replacement: SNTP can mostly tell you what an NTP server thinks is the worst-case error in its time estimate; the information you're getting is an estimate of the difference between your local time and google's local time which is different information (but related, if we assume that google's trying to synchronize to NTP time as well)

  2. Hi Jeff, thanks for the link. I can try your code at some point, or perhaps try it with this library
    https://pypi.python.org/pypi/ntplib/

    The problem we had recently was a new firewall that did not allow any UDP:123 traffic at all. That's why I needed something that fetches roughly the right time over HTTP.

    Anders

  3. ntplib looks like good code (certainly more polished than mine), but I didn't look too hard for an (S)NTP client since my interest was to understand the protocol myself.

  4. (With either ntplib or my ntpsynch, the idea is that you could contact your local ntpd to find out its idea of whether it's synched, which would work even if port 123 is blocked from leaving/entering the LAN.)

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